Week 7

Online and Distributed Leadership

Digital Tattoo – implies a permanence to what is posted. Should we be allowed to post what we want? Teachers are like famous people, need to be careful how you are portrayed online. We need to be leading by example while online. If you would not say something to their face, or show them directly, then don’t post it.

Difference between Digital Citizenship and Cybersafety: Assembly for 8-10 video shows how what you post can be spread around the world. Digital Citizenship is teaching them to make the right choices around digital items, how to comment appropriately, social literacy of being a citizen self esteem issues being nice, more than cybersafety.


A game to teach https://www.side.wa.edu.au/e-learning/safety-online/grapple.html

Reading activity – summarise the terms and conditions of places like YouTube etc…

Why would you lead an online discussion? To make the students think, to model how to be part of an online discussion.

Leading Online Discussions (MindEdge Learning Workshop, 2014)

  • Set guidelines
  • Make connections
  • Challenge students to think critically
  • Encourage participation
  • Praise discussion posts
  • Guide conversations back to the question at hand
  • Use real world experiences
  • Hesitate before interjecting

Why Use Twitter

  • Encourages brevity
  • Identifies the tweeter
  • Allows replies and hashtags
  • Integrates with other tools (e.g. Tagboard, Pocket, Buffer, feedly)
  • Supports weblinks
  • Mobile App available

Twitter Terminology 101 (Saimond, 2009)

  • Tweet
  • Follower
  • # (hashtag, precedes a topic)
  • @ (precedes a Twitter user name you are referring to)
  • Retweet (RT)
  • Modified Tweet (MT)
  • Hat Tip (HT)
  • Reply
  • Direct Message (DM)

Education Review (2013) suggests ten ways that New Zealand teachers can get more out of the Twitterverse. We think these 6 are the most useful.

  • Use TweetDeck to manage your Twitter feeds.
  • Choose hashtags carefully and check for duplicates already being used
  • Join the #edchatNZ club. Every Thursday night at 9pm, teachers and anyone interested can jump onto Twitter and join the discussions at #edchatNZ
  • Make use of lists to group people based on any criteria you want for the purposes of reading their tweets
  • Saving tweets for a rainy day. There are several tools for saving your favourite tweets, such as Diigo.com, Getpocket.com  and Evernote (using @myEN)
  • Teaching with Twitter, for example microblogging for ‘summing up’, following the tweets of a famous person(s) during a significant event, such as politicians in the build-up to an election, ‘time tweeting’, where students choose a famous historical figure and create a twitter account from them, writing regular tweets in the appropriate vocabulary, or progressive collaborative writing, where students agree to take it in turns to contribute to an account or ‘story’ over a period of time.

Wicked Problems

A wicked problem is a problem that is difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize. They are highly complex, uncertain and often value laden. Bolstad et al. (2012) argue that learners and teachers, families and communities need support to develop the skills needed to engage in solving the wicked problems of the 21st Century. The use of term “wicked” here has come to denote resistance to resolution, rather than evil.

Education is complex. Wicked problems don’t have an answer- but through the use of online tools and digital media, independent people are able to work together to find ideas and concepts to explore wicked problems. Distributed leadership allows many people to work together to tackle these wicked problems. Refining traditional roles for students and teachers allows distributed leadership to occur.


Wicked Problems (from TPACK)

  1. Requirements that are incomplete, contradictory and changing
  2. Uniqueness, in that no two wicked problems are alike
  3. Occurring in complex and unique social contexts
  4. Solutions that are difficult to realize and recognize because of complex interdependencies and contexts
  5. Solutions that are not right or wrong, simply “better,” “worse,” “good enough,” or “not good enough”.
  6. Solutions that have no stopping rule, the best we can hope for is “satisficing. (Mishra & Koehler, 2008, p. 2).

Mess Mapping

Mess Mapping is a process for collecting, sharing, organizing and evaluating information regarding a Wicked Problems. A Mess Map diagram or mural represents a model of the problem at hand that shows the important “chunks” of information and their relationships with other “chunks.” (Horn & Weber, 2007)

What is a Wicked problem that you have in your practice? Create a mess map of it.


Distributed Leadership

Distributed leadership acknowledges that the work of leading and managing schools involves multiple individuals – not just those with formally designated leadership and management positions but also individuals without such designations. It is primarily concerned with the practice of leadership rather than specific leadership roles or responsibilities. It equates with shared, collective and extended leadership practice that builds the capacity for change and improvement.

Distributed leadership means mobilising leadership in order to generate more opportunities for change and to build the capacity for improvement. It is ‘leadership by expertise’ rather than leadership by role or years of experience. Genuine distributed leadership requires high levels of trust, transparency and mutual respect.

Distributed leadership is about collective influence and is a contributor to school success and improved performance- it is not an accidental by-product of high performing organisations. Individuals are accountable and responsible for their leadership actions; collaborative teamwork is the modus operandi and inter-dependent working is a cultural norm. (Hargreaves, Boyle & Harris, 2014).

  • Expertise not position
  • Distributed accountability
  • Distribution is non permanent
  • Changing roles and responsibilities
  • Leadership as practice

A strong correlation has been found between the building of leadership capacity for learning and teaching through distributed leadership and the increased engagement in both learning and teaching.

Because digital technology is multifaceted, it opens itself up to involvement from a variety of people and groups with different roles and responsibilities causing distributed leadership across time.

Collaboration in a digital technology setting is the purposeful joining of people in an online environment that enables relevant problems to be tested and validated through constructed knowledge.

Blended Learning

Blended Learning

The definition of blended learning is a formal education program in which a student learns: (1) at least in part through online learning, with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace; (2) at least in part in a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home; (3) and the modalities along each student’s learning path within a course or subject are connected to provide an integrated learning experience.

Blended Models (see http://tinyurl.com/tmlblended)


These blended learning models come from the Clayton Christensen Institute

  • Rotation model
    • Station Rotation
    • Lab Rotation
    • Flipped Classroom
    • Individual Rotation
  • Flex model
  • A La Carte model
  • Enriched Virtual model

EdPuzzle, Microsoft Mix, MOOC,

Khan Academy and others, hopefully will allow schools to become more creative, taking the ‘mundane’ learning away and letting project based learning happen.

Virtual education allows ‘real’ education to become even more valuable.

Blended learning tools





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